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Program Title: PakPsych® 72

Version Type: Demoware

Version: 1.0.1

Product ID: PSY72AD

©2005 PakMed Biomedical Solutions

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Please enter data in boxes for 'Name', 'Age', 'Sex', 'Date', 'Name of Rater/Doctor', 'Date of Examination/Rating', and ID.

Name of Subject/Patient and Doctor/Rater will be automatically changed to 'Proper Case Format'.

Enter 'Date' in a short, medium, or long format according to the Regional Settings as configured in Windows Control Panel.

Ask the patient to read these instructions: "Please read each statement and check an option number 0, 1, 2 or 3 that indicates how much the statement applied to you over the past week. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not spend too much time on any statement. You can view 'ControlTip Text' of each option by placing mouse pointer over an option circle."

The rating scale is as follows
0 Did not apply to me at all
1 Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time
2 Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time
3 Applied to me very much, or most of the time

You can view 'ControlTip Text' of relevant subscale for each item by placing mouse pointer over each item#.


The DASS is a set of three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. The DASS was constructed not merely as another set of scales to measure conventionally defined emotional states, but to further the process of defining, understanding, and measuring the ubiquitous and clinically significant emotional states usually described as depression, anxiety and stress. The DASS should thus meet the requirements of both researchers and scientist-professional clinicians.

Each of the three DASS scales contains 14 items, divided into subscales of 2-5 items with similar content. The Depression scale assesses dysphoria, hopelessness, devaluation of life, self-deprecation, lack of interest/involvement, anhedonia, and inertia. The Anxiety scale assesses autonomic arousal, skeletal muscle effects, situational anxiety, and subjective experience of anxious affect. The Stress scale is sensitive to levels of chronic non-specific arousal. It assesses difficulty relaxing, nervous arousal, and being easily upset/agitated, irritable/over-reactive and impatient. Subjects are asked to use 4-point severity/frequency scales to rate the extent to which they have experienced each state over the past week. Scores for Depression, Anxiety and Stress are calculated by summing the scores for the relevant items.

As the scales of the DASS have been shown to have high internal consistency and to yield meaningful discriminations in a variety of settings, the scales should meet the needs of both researchers and clinicians who wish to measure current state or change in state over time (e.g., in the course of treatment) on the three dimensions of depression, anxiety and stress.


A- Depression scale

● self-disparaging
● dispirited, gloomy, blue
● convinced that life has no meaning or value
● pessimistic about the future
● unable to experience enjoyment or satisfaction
● unable to become interested or involved
● slow, lacking in initiative

B- Anxiety scale

● apprehensive, panicky
● trembly, shaky
● aware of dryness of the mouth, breathing difficulties, pounding of the heart, sweatiness of the palms
● worried about performance and possible loss of control.

C- Stress scale

● over-aroused, tense
● unable to relax
● touchy, easily upset
● irritable
● easily startled
● nervy, jumpy, fidgety
● intolerant of interruption or delay

The DASS in research

The DASS may be administered either in groups or individually for research purposes. The capacity to discriminate between the three related states of depression, anxiety and stress should be useful to researchers concerned with the nature, etiology and mechanisms of emotional disturbance.

As the essential development of the DASS was carried out with non-clinical samples, it is suitable for screening normal adolescents and adults. Given the necessary language proficiency, there seems no compelling case against use of the scales for comparative purposes with children as young as 12 years. It must be borne in mind, however, that the lower age limit of the development samples was 17 years.

Clinical use of the DASS

The principal value of the DASS in a clinical setting is to clarify the locus of emotional disturbance, as part of the broader task of clinical assessment. The essential function of the DASS is to assess the severity of the core symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. It must be recognized that clinically depressed, anxious or stressed persons may well manifest additional symptoms that tend to be common to two or all three of the conditions, such as sleep, appetite, and sexual disturbances. These disturbances will be elicited by clinical examination, or by the use of general symptom check lists as required.

The DASS may be administered and scored by non-psychologists, but decisions based on particular score profiles should be made only by experienced clinicians who have carried out an appropriate clinical examination. It should be noted also that none of the DASS items refers to suicidal tendencies because items relating to such tendencies were found not to load on any scale. The experienced clinician will recognize the need to determine the risk of suicide in seriously disturbed persons.

The DASS and diagnosis

The DASS is based on a dimensional rather than a categorical conception of psychological disorder. The assumption on which the DASS development was based (and which was confirmed by the research data) is that the differences between the depression, the anxiety, and the stress experienced by normal subjects and the clinically disturbed, are essentially differences of degree. The DASS therefore has no direct implications for the allocation of patients to discrete diagnostic categories postulated in classificatory systems such as the DSM and ICD.



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Brown, T.A., Korotitsch, W., Chorpita, B.F. & Barlow, D.H. (1997). Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 79-89.

Antony, M.M., Bieling, P.J., Cox, B.J., Enns, M.W. & Swinson, R.P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 176-81.

Crawford, J.R. & Henry, J.D. (2003). The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 111-31.


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Einstein DA, Lovibond PF, Gaston JE Relationship between perfectionism and emotional symptoms in an adolescent sample AUST J PSYCHOL 52 (2): 89-93 AUG 2000

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Green HJ, Pakenham KI, Headley BC, et al. Altered cognitive function in men treated for prostate cancer with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues and cyproterone acetate: a randomized controlled trial BJU INT 90 (4): 427-432 SEP 2002

Green HJ, Pakenham KI, Headley BC, et al. Coping and health-related quality of life in men with prostate cancer randomly assigned to hormonal medication or close monitoring PSYCHO-ONCOL 11 (5): 401-414 SEP-OCT 2002

Gutierrez PM, Osman A, Barrios FX, et al. Development of the reasons for living inventory for young adults J CLIN PSYCHOL 58 (4): 339-357 APR 2002

Harris LM, Robinson J, Menzies RG Evidence for fear of restriction and fear of suffocation as components of claustrophobia BEHAV RES THER 37 (2): 155-159 FEB 1999

Harris LM, Robinson J, Menzies RG Predictors of panic symptoms during magnetic resonance imaging scans INT J BEHAV MED 8 (1): 80-87 2001

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Keogh E, Chaloner N The moderating effect of anxiety sensitivity on caffeine-induced hypoalgesia in healthy women PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 164 (4): 429-431 DEC 2002

Keogh E, Cochrane M Anxiety sensitivity, cognitive biases, and the experience of pain J PAIN 3 (4): 320-329 AUG 2002

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Keogh E, Herdenfeldt M Gender, coping and the perception of pain PAIN 97 (3): 195-201 JUN 2002

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Ricciardelli LA, McCabe MP Dietary restraint and negative affect as mediators of body dissatisfaction and bulimic behavior in adolescent girls and boys BEHAV RES THER 39 (11): 1317-1328 NOV 2001

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Taleporos G, McCabe MP The impact of sexual esteem, body esteem, and sexual satisfaction on psychological well-being in people with physical disability SEX DISABIL 20 (3): 177-183 FAL 2002

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